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Factor FR201 and FR202 Technical Resources

User Manual

Raspberry PI Imager

Firmware Tool

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How is auto power on enabled?

Auto power on is permanently enabled on this model. The unit will automatically turn on when supplied with power.

What is the default username/password?

Raspberry Pi OS: pi/raspberry
ubuntu: ubuntu/ubuntu

How does the serial port enumerate

/dev/ttyUSB0

Should I choose 32bit or 64bit when selecting an operating system?

32bit is recommended because it is more stable. Unlike x86 based systems, 32bit ARM can address large amounts of RAM. Individual processes are still limited to ~3GB RAM usage. 64bit may run slightly faster but is known to be less stable.

How do I erase the M.2 Storage?

The boot order is hardcoded. The best approach is to temporarily remove the M.2 storage drive, boot via USB, and then reconnect the M.2 storage once booted. It can then be erased.

Supported Operating Systems

The following operating systems have been validated by OnLogic. Other operating systems are not likely to work and are not eligible for support from OnLogic. Installation instructions can be found further down on this page. Refer to the contents pane on the right.

Raspberry Pi OS Lite (32bit & 64bit)
Raspberry Pi OS (32bit & 64bit)

Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 (32bit & 64bit)
Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 (32bit)

Ubuntu Server 22.04 (32bit & 64bit)
Ubuntu Server 20.04 (32bit)

System Setup

  • To get started, connect a keyboard, mouse, and monitor before powering up the system.
  • If you purchased the standard 60 watt power supply, it will be pre-wired and ready for use.
  • For the dinrail power supply, connect the wires as shown below. V+ to the red wire, V- to the black.
  • Use a flathead screwdriver to loosen the terminals to accept the wires. Insert the wires and then tighten the terminals back down.
  • On the system side, depress the orange tabs and slide the wires in.

First Boot

This section covers what to expect the first time you power your system on.

No OS

If you did not select an operating system when ordering, the system will boot up to a diagnostic splash screen. You can install an operating system using the steps further down on this page.

Diagnostic screen shown when no operating system is found.

Raspberry Pi OS

  • Log in to the default pi account with the password “raspberry”
  • Enter “raspberry” again (it is asking for the current password to enable changing it.)
  • Enter a new password. Note that it must be different from the default or it will error out.
  • Enter the new password again to confirm
  • You will be greeted with the Raspbian welcome screen.
  • Configure localization information
  • Click next to skip the redundant password change dialog. It will keep the password you set earlier.
  • Compete the setup wizard and the unit is ready for use.

Raspberry Pi OS (Lite)

The Lite version of Raspberry PI OS (Raspbian) boots straight to a login prompt.

  • Log in with the following credentials:
  • username: pi
  • password: raspberry
  • You will be prompted to change the default password on first login. re-enter “raspberry” as the current password, and then set your new password.
  • The system is now ready for use.

Ubuntu Desktop

  • Click on the “Ubuntu” user
  • Enter the default password – “ubuntu”
  • Enter the default password again – “ubuntu”
  • Create a new password
  • Click next and complete the setup wizard.
  • Your system is now ready for use.

Ubuntu Server

Ubuntu server boots straight to a login prompt.

  • Log in with the following credentials:
  • username: ubuntu
  • password: ubuntu
  • You will be prompted to change the default password on first login. re-enter “ubuntu” as the current password, and then set your new password.
  • The system is now ready for use.

Disassembly

  • Remove the 3 M3x4mm screws from the bottom of the system.
  • Lift up the bottom lid starting from the side with the OnLogic label
  • The internals of the unit including SSD and Cellular are now accessible.
  • It is recommended not to disassemble the unit any further unless absolutely necessary. Further disassembly has greater potential to cause warranty voiding damage. Use caution.
  • Remove the 3 5mm standoffs from the system.
  • Gently pop the bottom plate off and gently remove the WiFi pigtail (if equipped)
  • The CM4 module is held in by 2 M2 screws.
  • To remove the module, remove the 2 screws and lift straight up.
  • Use caution as the connector is fragile.
  • Re-install the module by lining up the screw holes. Gently pop it down into the sockets.
  • Note: the screws will not line up if the module is rotate 180 degrees.
  • Ensure the thermal pads and EMI gasket are still attached and in the shown locations.
  • Set the system onto the bottom plate, aligning the screw holes.
  • Re-install the 3 brass standoffs. Hand tighten and do not over torque. They can sheer off if too much force is applied.
  • Line up the two pegs of the bottom plate first, then hinge it into place.
  • Re-install the M3 screws into the bottom of the chassis.

Installing Raspberry Pi OS to eMMC

Follow this method if your Factor unit is equipped with onboard eMMC storage.

  • Remove the 3 M3x4mm screws from the bottom of the system.
  • Lift up the bottom lid starting from the side with the OnLogic label
  • Locate the 6 pin jumper block.
  • It should already have a jumper installed on it.
  • Move the jumper from its default position onto the “Boot DIS” pins as shown.
  • This tells the CM4 module to go into bootloader mode and allows flashing of the internal storage over USB-C.
  • Connect the USB-C port to another computer.
  • Connect power to the unit.
  • Download and install the “Firmware Tool” from the links at the top of this page.
  • Type rpiboot into the start menu and launch the rpiboot program
  • A terminal window will appear. It will automatically run a few commands and then close.
  • If the terminal stays at this stage, that means the PI was not detected. Double check jumper placement. Confirm power is connected to the unit and try a different USB cable.
  • If successful, the eMMC storage will be given a drive letter. Windows can not read it as it contains a Linux filesystem. Do not format it. The Raspberry PI imaging tool will be used instead.
  • Download the Raspberry Pi imager using the link at the top of this page.
  • Launch it from the start menu
  • Click on “CHOOSE OS”
  • Select your desired image. In most cases, you will want the default “Raspberry Pi OS”
  • Click on “CHOOSE STORAGE”
  • Select the RPI-MSD disk from the list. This is the Pi’s internal eMMC storage.
  • Click “WRITE”
  • Double check that this is the correct drive and choose “YES”
  • If an error occurs, try using the erase function from the imager’s “operating system” menu
  • Erase function shown
  • The image writing process will begin. This takes some time.
  • Success!
  • Unplug the USB-C cable and the power cord.
  • Restore the jumper to its original position.
  • Line up the two pegs of the bottom plate first, then hinge it into place.
  • Re-install the M3 screws into the bottom of the chassis.
  • Boot up the Factor unit. It will reboot once or twice to configure itself.
  • You will be greeted with the Raspbian welcome screen.
  • Configure localization information
  • Click next if you wish to keep the current password (default: raspberry)
  • Compete the setup wizard and the unit is ready for use.

Installing Raspberry PI OS to M.2 Storage

A USB flash drive smaller than the system’s storage is required for this method. Example: The Factor system has 32GB storage. The flash drive must be 16GB or smaller.

  • Begin by downloading the Raspberry Pi imager using the link at the top of this page.
  • Click on “CHOOSE OS”
  • Select your desired image. In most cases, you will want the default “Raspberry Pi OS
  • Click on “CHOOSE STORAGE”
  • Select your flash drive from the list
  • Click “WRITE”
  • Double check that this is the correct drive and choose “YES”
  • If an error occurs, try using the erase function from the imager’s “operating system” menu
  • Erase function shown
  • The image writing process will begin. This takes some time.
  • Success!
  • Unplug the flash drive from the computer and plug it into the single blue USB 3 port on the Factor unit.
  • Plug in the factor unit and it should boot up to the flash drive. It may restart automatically once or twice to configure everything.
  • Complete the setup wizard with the desired settings.
  • Configure localization information
  • Click next if you wish to keep the current password (default: raspberry)
  • Launch terminal from the panel in the top left
  • Run the “lsblk” command
  • In this example, our flash drive is SDA M.2 drive is SDB, and onboard eMMC storage is mmcblk0.
  • We will now clone the flash drive onto the desired storage drives. Following the example above, run a DD command:
  • Install to M.2: sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb status=progress
  • Install to eMMC: sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/mmcblk0 status=progress
  • An error saying “no space left on device” means that your flash drive was too big. It needs to be smaller than the drive you are installing to.
  • Success!
  • The terminal will show the amount of data copied and then drop to a prompt.
  • Shut down the system and unplug your flash drive.
  • Power the system back on and it will boot up into the operating system. The installation is now complte.

Installing Ubuntu to eMMC

Installing Ubuntu is a bit more involved than Raspberry Pi OS. Configuration files need to be edited manually or the operating system will not boot properly.

Follow this method if your Factor unit is equipped with onboard eMMC storage.

  • Remove the 3 M3x4mm screws from the bottom of the system.
  • Lift up the bottom lid starting from the side with the OnLogic label
  • Locate the 6 pin jumper block.
  • It should already have a jumper installed on it.
  • Move the jumper from its default position onto the “Boot DIS” pins as shown.
  • This tells the CM4 module to go into bootloader mode and allows flashing of the internal storage over USB-C.
  • Connect the USB-C port to another computer.
  • Connect power to the unit.
  • Download and install the “Firmware Tool” from the links at the top of this page.
  • Type rpiboot into the start menu and launch the rpiboot program
  • A terminal window will appear. It will automatically run a few commands and then close.
  • If the terminal stays at this stage, that means the PI was not detected. Double check jumper placement. Confirm power is connected to the unit and try a different USB cable.
  • If successful, the eMMC storage will be given a drive letter. Windows can not read it as it contains a Linux filesystem. Do not format it. The Raspberry PI imaging tool will be used instead.
  • Download the Raspberry Pi imager using the link at the top of this page.
  • Launch it from the start menu
  • Click on “CHOOSE OS”
  • Select the “Other general-purpose OS” category
  • Click On Ubuntu
  • Scroll down to and select a supported version of Ubuntu
  • For 20.04 32bit Desktop, select server even if you want Ubuntu Desktop. The desktop will be installed later.
  • Click on “CHOOSE STORAGE”
  • Select the RPI-MSD disk from the list. This is the Pi’s internal eMMC storage.
  • Click “WRITE”
  • Double check that this is the correct drive and choose “YES”
  • If an error occurs, try using the erase function from the imager’s “operating system” menu
  • Erase function shown
  • The image writing process will begin. This takes some time.
  • Success! but the configuration needs to be modified to boot properly.
  • Unplug the USB-C cable and then plug it back in.

  • The boot partition should show up with a drive letter.
  • If it doesn’t, you may need to assign one manually via disk management or diskpart.

  • Download the two files below and copy them to the boot partition, overwriting the existing two files.
  • Choose either 32bit or 64bit depending on what version you selected in the Pi imager

32bit

64bit

  • Eject the boot partition
  • Unplug the power and USB cable from the Factor unit
  • Restore the jumper to its original position.
  • Line up the two pegs of the bottom plate first, then hinge it into place.
  • Re-install the M3 screws into the bottom of the chassis.
  • Power up the unit and it will boot into Ubuntu. Log in with the following credentials:
  • username: ubuntu
  • password: ubuntu

You will be prompted to change the password. Enter a new password. Your system is now set up and ready to use.

Installing Ubuntu to M.2 Storage

A USB flash drive smaller than the system’s storage is required for this method. Example: The Factor system has 32GB storage. The flash drive must be 16GB or smaller.

  • Download the Raspberry Pi imager using the link at the top of this page.
  • Launch it from the start menu
  • Click on “CHOOSE OS”
  • Select the “Other general-purpose OS” category
  • Click On Ubuntu
  • Click on “CHOOSE STORAGE”
  • Select your flash drive from the list
  • Click “WRITE”
  • Double check that this is the correct drive and choose “YES”
  • If an error occurs, try using the erase function from the imager’s “operating system” menu
  • Erase function shown
  • The image writing process will begin. This takes some time.
  • Success! but the configuration needs to be modified to boot properly.
  • Unplug the flash drive and then plug it back in.

  • The boot partition should show up with a drive letter.
  • If it doesn’t, you may need to assign one manually via disk management or diskpart.

  • Download the two files below and copy them to the boot partition, overwriting the existing two files.
  • Choose either 32bit or 64bit depending on what version you selected in the Pi imager

32bit

64bit

  • Eject the boot partition
  • Unplug the flash drive from the computer and plug it into the single blue USB 3 port on the Factor unit.
  • Power on the Factor unit and wait for the login prompt.

Log in to the newly installed OS. See default credentials here. (typically ubuntu/ubuntu)

  • Open a terminal
  • Run the “lsblk” command
  • In this example, our flash drive is SDA M.2 drive is SDB, and onboard eMMC storage is mmcblk0.
  • We will now clone the flash drive onto the desired storage drives. Following the example above, run a DD command:
  • Install to M.2: sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb status=progress
  • Install to eMMC: sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/mmcblk0 status=progress
  • An error saying “no space left on device” means that your flash drive was too big. It needs to be smaller than the drive you are installing to.
  • Success!
  • The terminal will show the amount of data copied and then drop to a prompt.
  • Shut down the system and unplug your flash drive.
  • Power the system back on and it will boot up into the operating system. The installation is now complete.

32Bit Ubuntu Desktop

32bit Ubuntu Desktop can not be installed directly. You must first install Ubuntu server using one of the methods above. Once server is up and running, the following procedure will install the desktop environment.

  • Log in to the system
  • Run ‘sudo apt update’
  • Run ‘sudo apt install ubuntu-desktop’
  • Type Y and press enter at the prompt.
  • Sit tight while the installation proceeds. This will take at least 10 minutes.
  • After the installation completes, type ‘sudo reboot’ and press enter.
  • The unit will reboot into the desktop environment.

Wiping the eMMC or M.2 storage drive

The CM4 module has a hardcoded boot order of eMMC > M.2 > USB. This can be problematic if the image on the eMMC or m.2 becomes corrupted or needs to be erased for other reasons. The simple solution is to erase the boot partition. This can be done one of two ways.

Wiping eMMC using another computer

Note that this method can only by used to wipe eMMC storage, not M.2

  • Remove the 3 M3x4mm screws from the bottom of the system.
  • Lift up the bottom lid starting from the side with the OnLogic label
  • Locate the 6 pin jumper block.
  • It should already have a jumper installed on it.
  • Move the jumper from its default position onto the “Boot DIS” pins as shown.
  • This tells the CM4 module to go into bootloader mode and allows flashing of the internal storage over USB-C.
  • Connect the USB-C port to another computer.
  • Connect power to the unit.
  • Download and install the “Firmware Tool” from the links at the top of this page.
  • Type rpiboot into the start menu and launch the rpiboot program
  • A terminal window will appear. It will automatically run a few commands and then close.
  • If the terminal stays at this stage, that means the PI was not detected. Double check jumper placement. Confirm power is connected to the unit and try a different USB cable.
  • If successful, the eMMC storage will be given a drive letter. Windows can not read it as it contains a Linux filesystem. Do not format it. The Raspberry PI imaging tool will be used instead.
  • Download the Raspberry Pi imager using the link at the top of this page.
  • Launch it from the start menu
  • Click on “CHOOSE OS”
  • Scroll down and click on “erase”
  • Click on “CHOOSE STORAGE”
  • Select the RPI-MSD disk from the list. This is the Pi’s internal eMMC storage.
  • click “WRITE”
  • Double check that this is the correct drive and choose “YES”
  • The storage has now been erased.
  • Proceed to one of the operating system installation guides on this page.

Wiping eMMC or M.2 using DD

If the Linux image on the Factor unit is still bootable, you can use the terminal to erase the boot partition.

  • Run the lsblk command to list the storage devices
  • In this example, the boot partition is stored on /dev/mmcblk0p1
  • The following command will copy zeroes over that partition, effectively wiping it and preventing the Pi from booting to it.

sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblk0 status=progress

An M.2 storage drive will likely show up as sdb, so this command will wipe the M.2’s boot partition:

sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb status=progress

Once the drive wipe has completed, proceed to one of the operating system installation guides on this page.

Setting the Serial Mode (RS232/RS422/RS485)

The FR200 series serial mode can be controlled by configuring the embedded FTDI EEPROM. The utility for applying these configuration changes is installed by default on OnLogic provided FR200 series OS images; if you are not using an OnLogic provided image, you will need to install the utility before updating the serial mode.

Installing the EEPROM Tool

  • Install required libraries: sudo apt install libconfuse-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev and build tools sudo apt install cmake build-essential
  • Download the latest libFTDI and extract it to a folder (tar -xf libftdi1-1.5.tar.bz2)
    • You can also clone libFTDI with git: git clone git://developer.intra2net.com/libftdi
  • Build the library and the FTDI EEPROM tool:
    • mkdir libftdi1-1.5/build && cd libftdi1-1.5/build
    • cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX="/usr" ../
    • make && sudo make install

Setting the Configuration

  • Download the configuration file for your required mode:
    • RS232wget static.onlogic.com/resources/firmware/documentation/configs/FR200_RS232.conf
    • RS422wget static.onlogic.com/resources/firmware/documentation/configs/FR200_RS422.conf
    • RS485wget static.onlogic.com/resources/firmware/documentation/configs/FR200_RS485.conf
  • Flash the EEPROM image: sudo eeprom_ftdi --flash-eeprom FR200_<protocol>.conf
  • Reboot for changes to take effect: sudo shutdown -r now

Known issues / errata

Booting Ubuntu via USB may result in a black screen if the eMMC has an OS image on it. Wiping the eMMC and/or M.2 drive is recommended if that is encountered.

Updated on September 16, 2022

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